The following advanced search techniques may be used in the Energy Regulatory Commission Legal Information Archive (http://lia.erc.gov.ph).

I. Exact Phrase Search

To search for an exact phrase, double quotes (" ") must be used to enclose a group of words.


"electric rates"

"power consumption"

"certificate of compliance"

Without the double quotes, the system will look for the words either jointly or separately in a document as the space between the words will be recognized by the system as the operator AND.

II. Wildcard Search

The asterisk (*) can be used as a substitute for a word or group of words in a phrase, and locate variations of the phrase/s. It may also be used as a word extender.


"electric * rate" — will look for "electric power rates" or "electric generation rates"

"electric* rate*" — will look for "electrical rates" or "electric rate" or "electricity rates"

The wildcard is useful if the researcher is unsure of how a phrase or a word was written.

III. Boolean Search

The boolean search method employs operators to expand or narrow down a search. The operators are as follows:

AND — Using "AND" between words will look for the words appearing together in a document. A space between words also operates as "AND".

Example: electricity AND power

electricity power

OR — Using "OR" between words will look for instances where either or both words appear in a document. Symbol: |

Example: electricity OR power

electricity | power

NOT — Using "NOT" between words will look for instances where the word after the operator "NOT" does not appear in the same document as the first word. Symbol: – or !

Example: electricity NOT power

electricity – power

Important Note: When using the symbol "–" as part of a search parameter, as in an issuance number, enclose the search parameter in double quotes, or do not leave spaces between characters (e.g., "2011-001" or ERC Case No. 2011-001). Otherwise, the symbol will be read by the system as the NOT operator.

IV. Proximity Search

Proximity searching allows the user to find words appearing within a certain number of words between them. The principle applied is the closer the words are to each other, the greater the probability they are related. Symbol: ~


"electric power rate"~10 - Will look for the words "electric", "power", and "rate" within ten (10) words of each other.

Wildcards may be used with proximity searching.


"electric* power rate*"~10 – Will look for instances of the words “electric”, “electricity”, “electrical”, “power”, “rate”, “rates” and “rated” within 10 words of each other.




Energy Regulatory Commission
Planning & Information Service
Public Information Division
18th Floor Pacific Center Building,
San Miguel Avenue, Ortigas Center, Pasig City
Tel. No.: (632) 689-5343
Email: info@erc.gov.ph


A compilation of ERC guidelines, rules, regulations, procedures, decisions, orders and resolutions. For other issuances not included in this section, please contact the Office of General Counsel and Secretariat at telephone number (632) 631-5806 or email at ijptomas@erc.gov.ph